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Geschreven door >jill s small op Tue, 16 Jul 1996 16:17:32 met als onderwerp: Viol, crime de guerre (fwd)

From: Jill S Small

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Tue, 9 Jul 96 10:16:52 +0000
From: mhms@endadak.gn.apc.org
To: jsmall@endadak.gn.apc.org
Subject: Viol, crime de guerre

To: ENDA_Maghreb@endamag.gn.apc.org Muthoni.Muriu@arso.sasa.unon.org
To: ricj@camfido.gn.apc.org DEBRA@oln.comlink.apc.org jsmall@gn.apc.org
To: ada@camfido.gn.apc.org
Transmis par: mhms@endadak.gn.apc.org
Traduction libre par ENDA-SYNFEV

Sujet: Balkans : Pour la premiere fois, la Cour definir le viol comme un cr=
ime
de guerre

(extraits d'article)
New York Times, 28 juin 1996
Pour la premiere fois, la Cour definit le viol comme un crime de guerre
par Marlise Simons

La Haye, Pays-Bas - Un tribunal des Nations Unies a annonce mardi la mise =
en
accusation de huit militaires et policiers serbes bosniaques pour avoir vio=
le
des femmes musulmanes lors de la guerre de Bosnie. C'est la premiere fois q=
ue
des agressions sexuelles ont ete traitees, en tant que telles, en crime de
guerre. Les accusations ont ete annoncees par le Tribunal Penal Internation=
al
de La Haye, apres presque deux annees d'enquete. Les representants de la Co=
ur
ont declare que, ... bien que des poursuites pour viol aient ete incluses d=
ans
d'autres cas, cette mise en accusation a donne au viol organise et aux autr=
es
agressions sexuelles la place qui est la leur dans le droit international,
celle de crime contre l'humanite.

"C'est une accusation-cle, car elle met l'accent exclusivement sur les
agressions sexuelles, sans y inclure d'autres charges ", a declare Christia=
n
Chartier, porte-parole de la Cour. "C'est sans precedent. C'est d'une
importance capitale, car cela reflete la strategie de la cour pour mettre
l'accent sur les crimes lies au genre, et leur donner la place qui leur
revient dans la poursuite des crimes de guerre.

Les experts ont declare que ... les precedents proces institues suite a des
guerres ont eu a mettre en evidence des cas de viol, mais les ont considere=
s
comme secondaires, comme faisant partie d'un comportement abusif mais toler=
e
des forces de combat. La Charte du Tribunal Militaire de Nuremberg, qui a j=
uge
les crimes nazis apres la Seconde Guerre Mondiale n'a pas fait de reference=
au
viol. Au cours du Tribunal des crimes de guerre de Tokyo, apres la Seconde
Guerre Mondiale, certains officiers japonais ont ete condamnes pour n'avoir
pas empeche des viols. Mais la revelation de l'ampleur des viols en Bosnie =
a
ete si choquante ... qu'elle a convaincu le procureur en chef du tribunal, =
le
juge Richard Goldstone, et d'autres avec lui d'affronter cette question.

"Le viol n'a jamais constitue une preoccupation pour la communaute
internationale," a declare le juge Goldstone dans une interview au tout deb=
ut
de l'enquete. "Nous devons traiter ouvertement de ces violences".

Selon les enqueteurs de l'Union Europeenne et d'Amnesty International, le v=
iol
a souvent ete utilise en Bosnie a titre de strategie pour terroriser les ge=
ns.
Ils ont souligne que ... les trois parties en conflit, y compris les Musulm=
ans
et les Croates ont commis des violences sexuelles, mais que ... les
principales ont ete commises par les Serbes bosniaques ... en 1992, 20.000
femmes et filles musulmanes ont ete violees par des serbes.

Les huit serbes condamnes mardi, qui font tous partie soit des forces
militaires, paramilitaires ou a la police, ont ete accuses d'avoir commis d=
es
viols entre avril 1992 et fevrier 1993 a Foca ou dans les environs, dans le
Sud-est de la Bosnie. Aucun n'a ete arrete.

La condamnation decrit le martyre de 14 femmes musulmanes a Foca, ...
"certaines d'entre elles ayant a peine 12 ans". La plupart ont ete detenues
dans un camp de prisonniers, ou elles ont ete de maniere quasi permanente
victimes de viols et d'abus sexuels, de torture et d'autres sevices.

"La sante physique et mentale de nombreuses detenues s'est gravement
deterioree du fait de ces agressions sexuelles", mentionne la condamnation.
"Les detenues vivaient dans une crainte constante".

Certaines sont devenues suicidaires, d'autres ont souffert de depression.
Toutes ont developpe des pathologies psychologiques et emotionnelles ;
certains sont restees traumatisees. Une femme qui s'etait plainte des
violences au chef local de la police, Dragan Gogovic, a pour cela ete viole=
e
par lui-meme, mentionne l'acte d'accusation.=20

Une jeune fille de 15 ans, Temoin N=A1 87, a ete faite prisonniere en juill=
et
1992, et violee par quatre hommes. Dans les quinze jours suivants, dit l'ac=
te
d'accusation, elle et d'autres ont ete violees collectivement chaque soir p=
ar
des groupes de soldats.

Elle a subi les viols durant huit mois, dit l'accusation. A certains moment=
s,
elle et les autres femmes etaient gardees dans une maison ou elles devaient
faire la cuisine, la lessive et le menage pour les soldats durant la journe=
e,
et etaient violees la nuit.

Le Temoin n=A1 87, qui a maintenant 19 ans, a declare que ... presque
constamment elle souhaitait mourir. Le 25 fevrier 1993, l'un des accuses,
Radomir Kovac, a vendu cette jeune fille pour 500 marks allemands a deux
soldats du Montenegro. Mardi, le tribunal a aussi rendu public un second ac=
te
d'accusation dans lequel neuf hommes, des Croates de Bosnie, etaient
convaincus de crimes de guerre lors d'attaques contre des villages musulman=
s
dans la Vallee de Lasva (Bosnie Centrale) en 1992-93. Les actes d'accusatio=
n
etaient prets depuis novembre dernier, mais leur communication publique a e=
te
retardee, la Cour craignant pour la securite des victimes et des temoins.

Les nouvelles accusations de mardi amenent a 75 le nombre des suspects accu=
ses
de crimes de guerre en Bosnie. L'un d'entre eux est mort du cancer ; sept s=
ont
retenus a La Haye. Les autres sont en liberte. Le tribunal ... a commence
mardi ses auditions publiques a l'encontre de ses deux suspects les plus
recherches, Dr Radovan Karadzic et le General Ratko Mladic, les chefs des
serbes bosniaques. Les temoignages accumules contre eux deux, qui ne sont =
pas
en garde a vue, ont ete presentees afin de pousser les pouvoirs occidentaux=
a
les arreter.

L'acte d'accusation inclut que ... tous les deux sont responsable de la mor=
t,
du viol et de la torture de milliers de Serbes bosniaques, a declare le
Procureur Eric Ostberg dans sa declaration preliminaire.

"Il sont personnellement incrimines comme responsables des crimes de guerre
commis par leurs subordonnes", a dit a la cour le Procureur, un juriste
suedois. Il a dit ... qu'il s'efforcerait de prouver que les deux hommes so=
nt
coupables du "crime de genocide supreme".

Ces crimes et d'autres pour lesquels les deux hommes ont ete par deux fois
accuses, incluent les atrocites commises contre des civils en Bosnie, en
particulier lors des sieges de Sarajevo et de Sbrebrenica, et la prise de
soldats de la paix des Nations Unies comme otages.=20

Les auditions, qui pour la premiere fois impliquent les plus hauts grades d=
es
Serbes Bosniaques, sont en grande partie symboliques, mais Karadzic, qui a
declare que le Tribunal etait injustifie et incompetent a envoye a cette
occasion un avocat pour le representer. Mais cet avocat n'a pas ete autoris=
e a
se presenter a la cour.

"La presence d'un avocat de la defense transformerait la procedure en un
proces par contumace", a declare le Procureur, en ajoutant que ... cela ser=
ait
contraire aux regles de la cour.

********************
Texte original
Subject: Balkans: For First Time, Court Defines Rape as War Crime
To: Mhms Of: 5:7711/1.12
From: DEBRA@oln.comlink.apc.org Of: 2:2/501.
Date: 2/04/32 18:42:44
-------------------------------------------
From: DEBRA@oln.comlink.apc.org (Debra Guzman)
## author : BorPet@aol.com
## date : 28.06.96

-------------------------------------------------------------------
[This article has been excerpted.]

New York Times June 28, 1996
For First Time, Court Defines Rape as War Crime
By Marlise Simons

THE HAGUE, Netherlands -- A United Nations tribunal announced Thursday th=
e
indictment of eight Bosnian Serb military and police officers in connection
with rapes of Muslim women in the Bosnian war, marking the first time sexua=
l
assault has been treated separately as a crime of war. The indictments were
announced by the International Criminal Tribunal in the Hague after almost =
two
years of investigations. Court officials said...although rape charges had b=
een
included in other cases, this indictment gave organized rape and other sexu=
al
offenses their due place in international law as crimes against humanity.

"This is a landmark indictment because it focuses exclusively on sexual
assaults, without including any other charges," said Christian Chartier, a
spokesman for the court. "There is no precedent for this. It is of major le=
gal
significance because it illustrates the court's strategy to focus on
gender-related crimes and give them their proper place in the prosecution o=
f
war crimes."

Experts said...while previous postwar courts have heard evidence of rape, t=
hey
have treated it as secondary, tolerated as part of soldiers' abusive behavi=
or.
The Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, which judged Nazi crimes after World Wa=
r
II, made no reference to rape in its charter. At a Tokyo war crimes court
after World War II, some Japanese officials were convicted of failing to
prevent rape. But evidence of the magnitude of rape in Bosnia was so
shocking...it persuaded the tribunal's chief prosecutor, Justice Richard
Goldstone, and others to confront the issue.

"Rape has never been the concern of the international community," Justice
Goldstone said in an interview in an early stage of the investigations. "We
have to deal openly with these abuses."

According to investigators of the European Union and Amnesty International,
rape was often used in Bosnia as a strategy to terrorize people. They
said...all three parties to the conflict, including Muslims and Croats, had
committed sexual abuses, but...Bosnian Serbs had been the main perpetrators=
.
The European investigators calculated...in 1992, 20,000 Muslim women and gi=
rls
were raped by Serbs.

The eight Serbs charged Thursday, all either in the military, the paramilit=
ary
or the police, are accused of rapes committed between April 1992 and Februa=
ry
1993 in or near Foca in southeastern Bosnia. None have been arrested.

The indictment described the ordeal of 14 Muslim women in Foca, one of them
named, "some of them as young as 12 years of age." Most were detained in a
prison camp, where they were subjected to almost constant rape and sexual
assaults, torture and other abuses.

"The physical and psychological health of many female detainees seriously
deteriorated as a result of the sexual assaults," the indictment said. "The
detainees lived in constant fear."

Some became suicidal; others suffered from depression. All suffered
psychological and emotional harm; some remain traumatized. A woman who
complained to the local chief of police, Dragan Gogovic, about the abuse wa=
s
then herself raped by him, the indictment said.

A 15-year-old girl, Witness No. 87, was taken prisoner in July 1992 and rap=
ed
by four men. Over the next two weeks, the indictment said, she and others w=
ere
gang-raped every evening by groups of soldiers.

She endured rapes for eight months, the indictment said. Part of the time s=
he
and other women were kept in a house where they had to cook, wash and clean
for soldiers in the daytime and were raped at night.

Witness No. 87, now 19, said...much of the time she wanted to die. On Feb. =
25,
1993, one of the accused, Radomir Kovac, sold the girl for 500 German marks=
to
two soldiers from Montenegro. Thursday the tribunal also issued a second
indictment in which nine men, Bosnian Croats, were charged with war crimes
during attacks on Muslim villages in the Lasva valley in central Bosnia in
1992-93. These indictments were ready last November, but the announcement w=
as
delayed because the court feared for the safety of victims and witnesses.

Thursday's new charges brings the number of suspects accused of war crimes =
in
Bosnia to 75. One has died of cancer; seven are being held in the Hague. Th=
e
rest are at large. The tribunal...began public hearings Thursday against it=
s
two most wanted suspects, Dr. Radovan Karadzic and Gen. Ratko Mladic, the
Bosnian Serb leaders. The evidence against the two, who are not in custody,
was presented to put more pressure on Western powers to arrest them.

The prosecution contends...the two are responsible for the deaths, rapes an=
d
torture of thousands of Bosnian Serbs, Prosecutor Eric Ostberg said in his
opening statement.

"They are being charged with individual responsibility for the war crimes
committed by their subordinates," the prosecutor, a jurist from Sweden, tol=
d
the court. He said ....he would seek to prove that the two men were guilty =
of
"the ultimate crime of genocide."

This and other crimes for which the two men were twice indicted, include
atrocities against civilians in Bosnia, specifically during the siege of
Sarajevo and Sbrebrenica and the taking of U.N. peacekeeping soldiers as
hostage. The hearings, the first to involve the most senior Bosnian Serbs, =
are
largely symbolic, but Karadzic, who has declared the tribunal irrelevant an=
d
incompetent, on this occasion sent a lawyer to represent him.

But the lawyer was not permitted to be present in court.

"The presence of the defense lawyer would transform the proceedings into a
trial in absentia," the prosecutor said, adding...this would be against cou=
rt
rules.


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